Social Psychology

Student Learning Program

Chapter 3: Perceiving individuals


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1. People assume that "what is beautiful is ". (p.59)

2. Most people tend to develop positive feelings about the people we encounter frequently in our lives, a phenomenon called mere . (p.62)

3. refers to a cue’s ability to attract attention in its context. (p.63)

4. Cues are interpreted in the light of our knowledge. (p.64)

5. When two cognitive representations are linked, an is formed. (p.65)

6. Knowledge becomes accessible when concurrently, , or frequently activated. (pp.66-67)

7. People make inferences when they assume that others have inner qualities that correspond to their observable behaviors. (p.69)

8. The correspondence bias reflects the tendency that people assume that the behaviors they may observe must reflect actors’ inner characteristics, thereby ignoring factors. (p.70)

9. In Asian cultures people are seen as from other people. (p.72)

10. Processing systematically requires , time, and effort. (p.73)

11. The more and salient a potential cause, the more likely it is to be taken as an explanation of behavior. (p.73)

12. When no immediate causal attribution comes to mind when observing a behavior, people can collect information to try to ascertain the cause. (p.75)

13. People search for information when seeking information about whether the actor also displays the same behavior towards other targets. (p.75)

14. When people rely on their personality theories, they may infer that a person has many qualities based on a single characteristic. (p.79)

15. Because impressions shape the interpretation of later information, their effects can persist even if the initial impression is discovered to be false, a distortion called bias. (p.85)

16. Unless we are willing and able to process information systematically, the principle of applies: we stick with our first impressions. (p.85)

17. When people use the approach to evaluate a person’s multiple attributes, their overall judgment may depend on the particular way they combine the attributes. (p.85)

18. Letting the early information have a greater impact is called a effect. (p.85)

19. The most effective way to reduce or eliminate the perseverance bias is to explicitly consider the possibility. (p.86)

20. Impressions often lead people to seek consistent information or even to elicit confirming actions from others, creating a self-fulfilling . (p.87)

In this chapter

  1. Chapter 3 introduction
  2. Forming first impressions: Cues, interpretations, and inferences
  3. Beyond first impressions: Systematic processing
  4. The impact of impressions: Using, defending, and changing impressions
  5. Chapter overview (PDF)
  6. Fill-in-the-blanks
  7. Multiple-choice questions